Research Letters

Anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial profiles of Scilla nervosa (Burch.) Jessop (Hyacinthaceae)

Karen du Toit, Audrey Kweyama, Johannes Bodenstein
South African Journal of Science | Vol 107, No 5/6 | a259 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/sajs.v107i5/6.259 | © 2011 Karen du Toit, Audrey Kweyama, Johannes Bodenstein | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 10 May 2010 | Published: 09 May 2011

About the author(s)

Karen du Toit, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
Audrey Kweyama, School of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
Johannes Bodenstein, Department of Pharmacology, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

Abstract

Scilla nervosa (Burch.) Jessop (Hyacinthaceae) [=Schizocarphus nervosus (Burch.) Van der Merwe] is a well-known plant in traditional medicine in South Africa, used for conditions associated with pain and inflammation, such as rheumatic fever. However, the topical anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities of the plant have not been investigated. A bioassay-guided fractionation approach was implemented to determine the biological activities of different extracts. A crude methanol extract was prepared from the bulbs to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties in a mouse model of acute croton oil-induced auricular contact dermatitis. The non-polar and polar components present in the methanol extract were separated by extraction with dichloromethane and ethanol, respectively; and their antimicrobial activity against the invasive pathogenic microorganisms Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiellla pneumoniae and Candida albicans was investigated using a microplate method. Oedema induced by application of croton oil was significantly reduced 3 h (~66%) and 6 h (~40%) after treatment with the extracts. Anti-inflammatory activity was ~1.8-fold lower at 6 h, suggesting a potent, short-acting effect. The non-polar extract exhibited greater efficacy and potency against the microorganisms than the polar extract. The non-polar extract was equipotent against S. aureus and K. pneumoniae, but twice as potent against C. albicans as against the bacteria, suggesting little discrimination between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria but specificity for the fungal yeast. The polar extract was the least potent against K. pneumoniae, but 10-fold more potent against C. albicans, suggesting specificity for Gram-positive bacteria and the fungal yeast. S. nervosa contains compounds that are individually, or in combination, potent anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial agents. The anti-inflammatory activity demonstrated here may rationalise the use of the plant in traditional medicine.

Keywords

anti-inflammatory activity; antimicrobial activity; Candida albicans; Klebsiella pneumoniae; Scilla nervosa; Staphylococcus aureus

Metrics

Total abstract views: 1436
Total article views: 2252

References


Lee DY, Choo BK, Yoon T, et al. Anti-inflammatory effects of Asparagus cochinchinensis extract in acute and chronic cutaneous inflammation. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;121:28–34. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2008.07.006, PMid:18691647

Tripathi KD. Essentials of medical pharmacology. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers; 2009.

Hutchings A, Scott A, Lewis G, Cunningham AB. Zulu medicinal plants – An inventory. Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal Press; 1996.

Jacot Guillarmod A. Flora of Lesotho. Lehre: Verlag von Cramer; 1971.

Bangani V, Crouch NR, Mulholland DA. Homoisoflavanones and stilbenoids from Scilla nervosa. Phytochemistry. 1999;51:947–951. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(99)00155-7

Watt J, Breyer-Brandwijk M. The medicinal and poisonous plants of southern and eastern Africa. Edinburgh: Livingston Ltd; 1962.

Tubaro A, Dri P, Delbello G, Zilli C, Della Loggia R. The croton oil ear test revisited. Agents Actions. 1986;17:347–349. doi:10.1007/BF01982641, PMid:3962781

López A, Sims D, Ablett R, et al. Effect of emu oil on auricular inflammation induced with croton oil in mice. Am J Vet Res. 1999;60:1558–1561.

Yoganathan S, Nicolosi R, Wilson T, et al. Antagonism of croton oil inflammation by topical emu oil in CD-1 mice. Lipids. 2003;38:603–607. doi:10.1007/s11745-003-1104-y, PMid:12934669

Du Toit K, Buthelezi S, Bodenstein J. Anti-inflammatory and antibacterial profiles of selected compounds found in South African propolis. S Afr J Sci. 2009;105:470–472.

Fretland D, Widomski D, Zemaitis J, et al. Inflammation of guinea pig dermis: Effects of leukotriene B4 receptor antagonist, SC-41930. Inflammation. 1990;14:727–739. doi:10.1007/BF00916375, PMid:1965311

Eloff JN. A sensitive and quick microplate method to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration of plant extracts for bacteria. Planta Medica. 1998;64:711–713. doi:10.1055/s-2006-957563, PMid:9933989

GraphPad Prism. Version 5.02. San Diego, CA: GraphPad Software.

Oliveira de Melo J, Truiti MT, Muscara M, et al. Anti-inflammatory activity of crude extract and fractions of Nectandra falcifolia leaves. Biol Pharm Bull. 2006;29:2241–2245. doi:10.1248/bpb.29.2241

Van Vuuren SF. Antimicrobial activity of South African medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008;119:462–472. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2008.05.038, PMid:18582553



Reader Comments

Before posting a comment, read our privacy policy.

Post a comment (login required)

Crossref Citations

No related citations found.