Research Letters

Molecular phylogeny of Duvenhage virus

Charmaine van Eeden, Wanda Markotter, Louis H. Nel
South African Journal of Science | Vol 107, No 11/12 | a177 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/sajs.v107i11/12.177 | © 2011 Charmaine van Eeden, Wanda Markotter, Louis H. Nel | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 29 March 2010 | Published: 14 October 2011

About the author(s)

Charmaine van Eeden, Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of Pretoria, South Africa
Wanda Markotter, Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of Pretoria, South Africa
Louis H. Nel, Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of Pretoria, South Africa

Abstract

The Duvenhage virus (DUVV) constitutes one of the 11 species in the Lyssavirus genus and causes fatal rabies encephalitis. The virus is associated with insectivorous bat species and three human cases have been reported, all of which were linked to contact with bats. Few of these isolates have been studied and thus little is known about the phylogeny and epidemiology of this lyssavirus. Until 2007, when an isolate was made from the East African country of Kenya, all isolations of this virus had been from southern Africa. This discovery led to many questions regarding the spread and diversity of this lyssavirus. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the DUVV isolates constitute two different lineages, in which the southern African isolates group together to form one lineage and the more recent isolate from Kenya constitutes a new, second lineage. We found that the new isolate has a genetic variation that has not yet been seen for DUVV. Not only is our lack of knowledge regarding the geographical distribution of this uniquely African virus emphasised, but we have also demonstrated the potential diversity within this genotype.

Keywords

Duvenhage virus; South Africa; bats; humans; lyssavirus

Metrics

Total abstract views: 1283
Total article views: 2459

References


International Committee for Taxonomy of Viruses. Official taxonomy: Updates since the 8th report [document on the Internet]. c2009 [cited 2008 Sept. 12]. Available from: http://talk.ictvonline.org/media/p/1208.aspx

Kuzmin IV, Orciari LA, Yohko TA, et al. Bat lyssaviruses (Aravan and Khujand) from central Asia: Phylogenetic relationships according to the N, P and Ggene sequences. Virus Res. 2003;97:65–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1702(03)00217-X

Kuzmin IV, Hughes GJ, Botvinkin AD, Orciari LA, Rupprecht CE. Phylogenetic relationships of Irkut and West Caucasian bat viruses within the Lyssavirus genus and suggested quantitative criteria based on the N gene sequence for lyssaviruses genotype definition. Virus Res. 2005;111:28–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2005.03.008, PMid:15896400

Kuzmin IV, Neizgoda M, Franka R, et al. Possible emergence of West Caucasian bat virus in Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:1887–1889. http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1412.080750, PMid:19046512, PMCid:2634633

Kuzmin IV, Mayer AE, Niezgoda M, et al. Shimoni bat virus, a new representative of the Lyssavirus genus. Virus Res. 2010;149:197–210. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2010.01.018, PMid:20138934

Badrane H, Bahloul C, Perrin P, Tordo N. Evidence of two Lyssavirus phylogroups with distinct pathogenicity and immunogenicity. J Virol. 2001;75:3268–3276. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.75.7.3268-3276.2001, PMid:11238853, PMCid:114120

Fekadu M, Shaddock JH, Sanderlin DW, Smith JS. Efficacy of rabies vaccines against Duvenhage virus isolated from European house bats (Eptesicusserotinus), classic rabies and rabies-related viruses. Vaccine. 1988;6:533–539. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0264-410X(88)90107-7

Bahloul C, Jacob Y, Tordo N, Perrin P. DNA-based immunization for exploring the enlargement of immunological cross-reactivity against the lyssaviruses. Vaccine. 1998;16:417–425. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0264-410X(97)00204-1

Benmansour A, Leblois H, Coulon P. Antigenicity of rabies virus glycoprotein. J Virol. 1991;65:4198–4203. PMid:1712859, PMCid:248855

Meredith CD, Rossouw AP, Van Praag Koch H. An unusual case of human rabies thought to be of chiropteran origin. S Afr Med J. 1971;45:767–769. PMid:5106834

Van der Merwe M. Bats as vectors of rabies. SAfr J Sci. 1982;78:421–422.

Miller-Butterworth CM, Eick G, Jacobs DS, Schoeman MC, Harley EH. Genetic and phenotypic differences between South African long-fingered bats, with global Miniopterine phylogeny. J Mammol. 2005;86:1121–1135. http://dx.doi.org/10.1644/05-MAMM-A-021R1.1

Foggin CM. Rabies and rabies-related viruses in Zimbabwe: Historical, virological and ecological aspects. PhD thesis, Harare, University of Zimbabwe,1988.

Bourhy H, Kissi B, Lafon M, Sacramento D, Tordo N. Antigenic and molecular characterization of bat rabies virus in Europe. J Clin Microbiol. 1992;30:2419–2426. PMid:1401009, PMCid:265516

Davis PL, Holmes EC, Larrous F, et al. Phylogeography, population dynamics and molecular evolution of European bat lyssaviruses. J Virol. 2005;79:10487–10497. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.79.16.10487-10497.2005, PMid:16051841, PMCid:1182613

Amengual B, Whitby JE, King A, Serra Cobo J, Bourhy H. Evolution of European bat lyssaviruses. J Gen Virol. 1997;78:2319–2328. PMid:9292021

Serra-Cobo J, Amengual B, Abellan C, Bourhy H. European bat lyssavirus infection in Spanish bat populations. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8:413–420. http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0804.010263, PMid:11971777, PMCid:2730232

Mackensie JS, Field HE, Guyatt KJ. Managing emerging diseases borne by fruit bats (flying foxes) with particular reference to henipaviruses and Australianbat lyssavirus. J Appl Microbiol. 2003;94:59–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2672.94.s1.7.x

Ghatak S, Banerjee R, Agarwak RK, Kapoor KN. Zoonoses and bats: A look from human health viewpoint. J Comm Dis. 2000;32:40–48. PMid:11129564

Guyatt KJ, Twin J, Davis P, et al. A molecular epidemiological study of Australian bat lyssavirus. J Gen Virol. 2003;84:485–496. http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/vir.0.18652-0, PMid:12560583

Paweska JT, Blumberg LH, Liebenberg C, et al. Fatal human infection with rabies-related Duvenhage virus, South Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:1965– 1966. PMid:17326954

Sabeta CT, Markotter W, Mohale DK, Shumba W, Wandeler AI, Nel LH. Mokola virus in domestic mammals, South Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:1371– 1373. PMid:18252112, PMCid:2857310

Markotter W, Kuzmin I, Rupprecht CE, Nel LH. Phylogeny of Lagos bat virus: Challenge for lyssavirus taxonomy. Virus Res. 2008;135:10–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2008.02.001, PMid:18359532

Koprowski H. The mouse inoculation test. In: Meslin FX, Kaplan MM, Koprowski H, editors. Laboratory techniques in rabies. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1996; p. 80–87.

Centers for Disease Control. DFA diagnosis [document on the Internet]. c2008 [cited 2009 July 24]. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/Rabies/Professional/Publications/DFA_diagnosis

Markotter W, Kuzmin I, Rupprecht CE. Isolation of Lagos bat virus from water mongoose. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:1913–1918. PMid:17326944

Hall TA. BioEdit: A user friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucleic Acids Res. 1999;41:95–98.

Thompson JD, Higgins DG, Gibson TJ. CLUSTAL W: Improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting,positions-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Res. 1994;22:4673–4680. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/22.22.4673, PMid:7984417, PMCid:308517

Kumar S, Tamura K, Nei M. MEGA3: Integrated software for molecular evolutionary genetic analysis and sequence alignment. Brief Bioinform. 2004;5:150–163. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bib/5.2.150, PMid:15260895

Kimura M. A simple method for estimating evolutionary rates of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences. J Mol Evol. 1980;15:111–120. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01731581, PMid:7463489

Saitou N, Nei M. The neighbour-joining method: A new method for constructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol. 1987;4:406–425. PMid:3447015

Willoughby RE, Tieves KS, Hoffman GM, et al. Survival after treatment of rabies with induction of a coma. New Engl J Med. 2005;352:2508–2514. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa050382, PMid:15958806

Van Thiel P, Van Den Hoek J, Eftimov F, et al. Fatal case of human rabies (Duvenhage virus) from a bat in Kenya: The Netherlands, December 2007. Eurosurveillance. 2008;13:1.

Van Thiel PAM, De Bie RMA, Eftimov F, et al. Fatal human rabies due to Duvenhage virus from a bat in Kenya: Failure of treatment with coma-induction,ketamine and antiviral drugs. PLOS Negl Trop Dis. 2009;3(7):e428. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000428, PMid:19636367, PMCid:2710506

Marston DA, McElhinney LM, Johnson N, et al. Comparative analysis of the full genome sequence of European bat lyssavirus type 1 and 2 with other lyssaviruses and evidence for a conserved transcription termination and polyadenylation motif in the G-L 3’ non translated region. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:1302–1314. http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/vir.0.82692-0, PMid:17374776

Kuzmin IV, Wu X, Tordo N, Rupprecht CE. Complete genomes of Aravan, Khujand, Irkut and West Caucasian bat viruses, with special attention to the polymerase gene and non-coding regions. Virus Res. 2008;136:81–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2008.04.021, PMid:18514350



Reader Comments

Before posting a comment, read our privacy policy.

Post a comment (login required)

Crossref Citations

No related citations found.