Research Articles

An air quality assessment in the industrialised western Bushveld Igneous Complex, South Africa

Andrew D. Venter, Ville Vakkar, Johan P. Beukes, Pieter G. van Zyl, Heikki Laakso, Desmond Mabaso, Petri Tiitta, Miroslav Josipovic, Markku Kulmala, Jacobus J. Pienaar, Lauri Laakso
South African Journal of Science | Vol 108, No 9/10 | a1059 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/sajs.v108i9/10.1059 | © 2012 Andrew D. Venter, Ville Vakkar, Johan P. Beukes, Pieter G. van Zyl, Heikki Laakso, Desmond Mabaso, Petri Tiitta, Miroslav Josipovic, Markku Kulmala, Jacobus J. Pienaar, Lauri Laakso | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 15 December 2011 | Published: 14 September 2012

About the author(s)

Andrew D. Venter, School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa
Ville Vakkar, Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Johan P. Beukes, School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa
Pieter G. van Zyl, School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa
Heikki Laakso, Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Desmond Mabaso, Rustenburg Local Municipality, Rustenburg, South Africa
Petri Tiitta, School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, North-West University, Potchefstroom Department of Applied Physics, University of Eastern Finland, Finland
Miroslav Josipovic, School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, North-West University, Potchefstroom
Markku Kulmala, Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Jacobus J. Pienaar, School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, North-West University, Potchefstroom
Lauri Laakso, School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, North-West University, Potchefstroom Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, South Africa


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Abstract

South Africa has the largest industrialised economy in Africa, with significant mining and metallurgical activities. A large fraction of the South African mineral assets is concentrated in the Bushveld Igneous Complex (BIC), with the western limb being the most exploited. Because the majority of the world’s platinum is produced in the BIC, this area is also of international interest. There are some indications that the western BIC should be considered an air pollution hotspot; however, inadequate data exist to substantiate these claims scientifically. To partially address this knowledge gap, a comprehensive air quality monitoring station was operated for more than 2 years in this area. Meteorological parameters, trace gas concentrations and total mass concentration of particulate matter up to 10 µm in size (PM10) were measured. Compared with South African and European ambient air quality standards, SO2, NO2 and CO concentrations were generally acceptable. The major sources of SO2 were identified as high-stack industry emissions, while household combustion from semi-formal and informal settlements was identified as the predominant source of NO2 and CO. In contrast, O3 exceeded the 8-h moving average more than 322 times per year. The main contributing factor was identified to be the influx of regional air masses, with high O3 precursor concentrations. PM10 exceeded the current South African 24-h standard 6.6 times per year, the future (2015) standard 42.3 times per year and the European standard more than 120 times per year. The main source of PM10 was identified as household combustion from semi-formal and informal settlements. The findings clearly indicate that atmospheric O3 and PM10 levels in the western BIC need to be addressed to avoid negative environmental and human health impacts.

Keywords

Bushveld Igneous Complex; air quality; sulphur dioxide; nitrogen dioxide; black carbon

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